First off, I don't care what anybody says, Kyoto Station is totally awesome, easily the coolest station I've seen in Japan. I spent some time just wandering around there taking pictures, and hit the ramen food court up near the top before I hit the Shinkansen back to Shin-Osaka (yes, yes, it was the Kodama again, but for one hop, it totally doesn't matter). 美味しかった〜！ Also some hot コロッケ near the temples, and some クスタード cream puff things of some sort, and some green tea swirl soft serve ice cream, and... Mmmmm.
Anyway, hit 金閣寺 (Kinkaku-ji -- the temple formerly known as 鹿苑寺, rokuon-ji), just because, well, famous. It's on one of the guys' at work's screensaver, so have to go see the Golden Screensaver Pavilion.
After that, wandered across town to 南禅寺 (nanzen-ji), which was okay, and then up along the 哲学の道 (Philosopher's Walk) to 銀閣寺 (ginkaku-ji, the Silver Pavilion). All of which (past nanzen-ji) I hit pretty much by aimless wandering, and I have to say I did well... The Silver Pavilion is pretty darned awesome -- Very Important Mosses, indeed. :)
Anyway, Kyoto is obviously a place you could spend a week exploring, but I think I got a decent taste. Enough to want to go back, but also enough that I feel like I've actually seen it so can take my time about it. And the station totally rocks.