Douglas Triggs (doubt72) wrote,
Douglas Triggs
doubt72

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月曜日(まだ好きじゃない)

Passive and causitive verbs.

Passive:
Type 1: -う+あれる [except true う verbs: -う+われる]
Type 2: -る+られる
Irregular: こられる, される

XはYにV-PASSIVE -

Direct passive: X is directly affected by Y

Indirect "suffering" passive: X is indirectly affected by Y, and is cranky about it. Even if inanimate object is involved, takes を, person affected is always は.

Causitive:
Type 1: -う+あせる [except true う verbs: -う+わせる]
Type 2: -る+させる
Irregular: こさせる, させる

Make-causitive: XはYをV-CAUSITIVE or XはYにOBJをV-CAUSITIVE if verb takes an object - X makes Y do something.

Let-causitive: XはYに/をV-CAUSITIVE-て+あげる/くれる/etc. - X lets/allows Y to do something.

Example sentences (okay, I'm totally copying forms from my grammar book here, this isn't quite something I can spontaneously generate on my own):

今朝早く日に起こされました。
昨日雨に降られて困りました。
マイクさんは仕事に日本へ行かせました。
ここで待たせてくれました。
Tags: 日本語
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